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Designation: D 2247 – 02
Standard Practice for
Testing Water Resistance of Coatings in 100 % Relative
Humidity1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 2247; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.
Using Water Immersion2
D 1193 Specification for Reagent Water4
D 1654 Test Method for Evaluation of Painted or Coated
Specimens Subjected to Corrosive Environment2
D 1730 Practices for Preparation of Aluminum and
Aluminum-Alloy Surfaces for Painting5
D 1735 Practice for Testing Water Resistance of Coatings
Using Water Fog Apparatus2
D 2616 Test Method for Evaluation of Visual Color Difference With a Gray Scale2
D 3359 Test Methods for Measuring Adhesion by Tape
Test2
D 3363 Test Method for Film Hardness by Pencil Test2
D 4541 Test Method for Pull-Off Strength of Coatings
Using Portable Adhesion Testers3
D 4585 Practice for Testing Water Resistance of Coatings
Using Controlled Condensation2
1. Scope
1.1 This practice covers the basic principles and operating
procedures for testing water resistance of coatings by exposing
coated specimens in an atmosphere maintained at 100 %
relative humidity so that condensation forms on the test
specimens.
1.2 This practice is limited to the methods of obtaining,
measuring, and controlling the conditions and procedures of
tests conducted in 100 % relative humidity. It does not specify
specimen preparation, specific test conditions, or evaluation of
results.
NOTE 1—Alternative practices for testing the water resistance of
coatings include Practices D 870, D 1735, and D 4585.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the
standard. The values given in parentheses are for information
only.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
3. Summary of Practice
3.1 Coated specimens are placed in an enclosed chamber
containing a heated, saturated mixture of air and water vapor.
The temperature of the chamber is usually maintained at 38°C
(100°F). At 100 % relative humidity (RH), a very small
temperature difference between the specimen and the surrounding vapor causes the formation of condensation on the specimens. The exposure condition is varied by selecting the
duration of the test. Water permeates the coating at rates that
are dependent upon the characteristics of the coating. Any
effects such as color change, blistering, loss of adhesion,
softening, or embrittlement are observed and reported.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
D 609 Practice for Preparation of Cold-Rolled Steel Panels
for Testing Paint, Varnish, Conversion Coatings, and
Related Coating Products2
D 610 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Rusting on
Painted Steel Surfaces3
D 714 Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Blistering of
Paints2
D 823 Practices for Producing Films of Uniform Thickness
of Paint, Varnish, and Related Products on Test Panels2
D 870 Practice for Testing Water Resistance of Coatings
4. Significance and Use
4.1 Water can cause the degradation of coatings, so knowledge of how a coating resists water is helpful in predicting its
service life. Failure in tests at 100 % relative humidity may be
caused by a number of factors including a deficiency in the
coating itself, contamination of the substrate, or inadequate
surface preparation. This practice is therefore useful for evaluating coatings alone or complete coating systems.
1
This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D01 on Paint and
Related Coatings, Materials, and Applications and is the direct responsibility of
Subcommittee D01.27 on Accelerated Testing.
Current edition approved Aug. 10, 2002. Published October 2002. Originally
published as D 2247 – 66 T. Last previous edition D 2247 – 99.
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 06.01.
3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 06.02.
4
5
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 11.01.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.05.
Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.
1
D 2247 – 02
4.2 Tests at 100 % relative humidity are used for specification acceptance, quality control, and research and development
of coatings and substrate treatments. These tests usually result
in a pass or fail determination, but the degree of failure may
also be measured. A coating system is considered to pass if
there is no evidence of water-related failure after a period of
time.
4.3 Results obtained from the use of 100 % humidity tests in
accordance with this practice should not be represented as
being equivalent to a period of exposure to water in the natural
environment, until the degree of quantitative correlation has
been established for the coating or coating system.
4.4 The test chamber can be a small laboratory cabinet or a